DNA Vocabulary

adenine(A)-a compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A purine derivative, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA
alleles – different forms of a gene
backbone- the series of vertebrae extending from the skull to the pelvis; the spine
base pairs- a pair of complementary bases in a double-stranded nucleic acid molecule, consisting of a purine in one strand linked by
hydrogen bonds- to a pyrimidine in the other. Cytosine always pairs with guanine, and adenine with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA)
cell division- when a cell divides to form new cells
chromosome- thread like strand found in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes are made of DNA and contain the instructions for a living thing
cytosine (C)- a compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of nucleic acids. It is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA
deoxyribose– the sugar molecules that make up the sides of a DNA molecule
DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about organism and it passed from parent to offspring instructions cells need to carry out all the functions of life
DNA replication- begins when the two sides of the DNA molecule unwind and separate somewhat like sipper unzipping
double helix- a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, esp. that in the structure of the DNA molecule
gene- part of a chromosome. It contains the instructions for a particular feature (ex. eye color)
genetics – the scientific study of heredity
guanine (G)- a compound that occurs in guano and fish scales, and is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A purine derivative, it is paired with cytosine in double-stranded DNA
heredity – the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring
nitrogen bases- molecules that contain the element nitrogen and other elements
nucleic acids- very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, that contains the
nucleus- the control center of a cell containing chromosomes made of DNA
RNA- Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins are made
thymine (T)- a compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA
trait- a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
twisted ladder- twisted ladder; spiral staircase are what molecules look like

Mitosis, Meiosis and Cell Cycle

chromatic- Each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
nucleus- Nucleus is the brain of the cell.
DNA- Each molecule of DNA consists of two strands coiled around each other to form a double helix, a structure like a spiral ladder. Each rung of the ladder consists of a pair of chemical groups called bases (of which there are four types), which combine in specific pairs so that the sequence on one strand of the double helix is complementary to that on the other. It is the specific sequence of bases that constitutes the genetic information.
cell division- Division of cells.

meiosis – the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells – sperm and eggs
mitosis- A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and king of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
identical- Similar in every detail. Equal.
replication- The process of copying something.
variation- The occurrence of an organism in more than one distinct color or form.
chromosome- Each chromosome consists of a DNA double helix bearing a linear sequence of genes, coiled and recoiled around aggregated proteins. Their number varies from species to species: humans have 22 pairs plus the two sex chromosomes (two X chromosomes in females, one X and one Y in males).
sex cells- Eggs (female) and sperms (male)
cell cycle – The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
cells produced- Cytokinesis – when cytokinesis is complete, two daughter cells have formed.
centromere – the most condensed and constricted region of a chromosome
DNA replication – biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA
asexual reproduction – One parent making offspring
sexual reproduction – Two parents making offspring
growth + repair- growing, developing and when injured, it is fixed