Essential Questions: Compare and contrast a photocopier and a muscle cell? Compare and contrast chromosomes and playing cards?







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1.What are the advantages + disadvantages of both sexual and asexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction requires two parents to make offspring. Asexual reproduction requires only one parent to make offspring.
Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction
Produce variation
Need to find a partner
The offspring looks different than their parent==(Unique DNA)==
Takes a long time to reproduce because the organism needs to find a mate

Large chance of Evolution

No guarantee of offspring being born

Lineages last longer






Advantages of Asexual Reproduction
Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction
No need to find a partner
Does not produce variation
Fast speed because the organisms do not need to find a mate==(Less steps to follow)==
The offspring looks the same as their parents (clone)



2. Name 3 organisms that reproduce sexually and 3 that reproduce asexually?
Organisms that reproduce sexually
Organisms that reproduce asexually
Flower
Sea Sponge
Monkey
Worms
Insects (bees, butterfly...)
Sea Star

3. What is the relationship between the cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis?
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Meiosis:
Special cellular division that produces four daughter cells
with different combinations of genes
and 50% of chromosomes of the parent cell.
Mitosis:

A stage in a cell cycle where cellular reproduction happens
by dividing into two identical daughter cells that are genetically same as the parent cell.
There are same number of genes and chromosomes in the nuclei of daughter cells.


During the cell cycle, the cell grows and starts the cell division. And it divides into two cells. There are two different kinds of cell division, mitosis and meiosis. During mitosis, one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells. So the daughter cell will have the same appearance with their parent cell. But during meiosis, half to form sex cells – sperm and eggs, reduces the number of chromosomes. They produce an offspring by sexual reproduction. So they have different appearance. An example of meiosis is your mother and you. Because you are produced by sexual reproduction, you have different appearance with your mother and father.


4. What are the cell cycle and meiosis used for?
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo is known as the cell cycle. During the cell cycle, the cell division happens. The cell cycle is used for cells to grow and reproduce. The little pig gets to be big pigs because their cells grow and divide, over and over.


If you are male, your body use meiosis to create sperm cells. If you are female, your body use meiosis to create egg cells.

5. What is similar about the cell cycle and meiosis?
Cell cycle and meiosis occurs for the same purpose. They both are for cell reproduction (sexual reproduction). Cell cycle and meiosis both have the process in which the cells get divided and make duplication.
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6. What is different about cell cycle and meiosis?
Cell cycle is also called cell division cycle. Cell cycle contains a process called mitosis. During the meiosis process, the parents’ chromosomes are all duplicated. Then, the centromeres hold the 2 chromatids together. After that, the pairs line up in the center of the cell, and separates to move to the opposite ends of the cell. Finally, it separates into 2, and into 4. However, for the cell cycle, the cell duplicates the adult chromosomes, all of them are separated into 2, and the cell splits into 2 and no more.
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Meiosis vs Mitosis



Meiosis
Mitosis
Produces:
Four haploid daughter cells
Two diploid daughter cells
Steps:
The steps of meiosis are Interphase, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II and Telophase II.
The steps of mitosis are Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis
Discovered by:
Oscar Hertwig
Walther Flemming
Genetically:
Different
Identical
Cytokenesis:
Occurs in Telophase I & Telohpase II
Occurs in Telophase
Number of Divisions:
2
1
Pairing of Homologues:
Yes
No
Type of Reproduction:
Sexual
Asexual
Function:
Sexual reproduction
Cellular Reproduction & general growth and repair of the body
Chromosome Number:
Reduced by half
Remains the same
Karyokenesis:
Occurs in Interphase I
Occurs in Interphase
Centromeres Split:
The centromeres do not separate during anaphase I, but during anaphase II
The centromeres split during Anaphase
Occurrence of Crossing Over:
Yes, Mixing of chromosomes (synapse)
No
Occurs in:
Humans, animals, plants, fungi
All organisms
Number of Daughter Cells Produced:
4 haploid cells
2 diploid cells
Creates:
Sex cells only: Female egg cells or Male sperm cells
Makes everything other than sex cells
Definition:
A type of cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
A process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in two producing a replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in haploid cell
Similarities:
Chromosomes Duplicate
Relative Positioning of chromosomes same at each stage